5 July 2023

Building an Indonesian Maritime Security System to Oversee Indonesia’s Long Term Development Plans 2025 – 2045

Jakarta, 5 July 2023 – The stability of the nation requires a strong security system in all facets, including at sea. Economic, political and technological changes have a very large influence on the dynamics of maritime security. Furthermore, various maritime security challenges today are no longer limited to traditional challenges, but also extend to nontraditional challenges, including threats caused by climate change.

Understanding the forms and sources of maritime security threats as well as the current level of alertness and capability of the national marine security system is important for formulating a plan to strengthen the national marine security system so it can oversee development targets, especially in the marine sector.

Departing from these conditions, the Indonesia Ocean Justice Initiative (IOJI), partnering with the Coordinating Ministry for Politics, Law and Security and International Conservation Caucus Foundation (ICCF), organized a series of seminar and workshop on maritime security entitled “Development of Maritime Security to Support Achievement of the 2025-2045 RPJPN Targets.”

In his key remarks in the opening of the offline and online seminar on Wednesday, 5 July 2023, the Indonesian Coordinating Minister for Politics, Law and Security, Mahfud MD, stated that, in general, the national geopolitical situation has been quite stable. However, Indonesia still faces several maritime security challenges related to technological developments.

“If not handled quickly, technological developments can facilitate maritime-based crime (maritime cyber risk).”

“One of the Golden Visions of the 2025-2045 RPJPN is the development of the maritime sector whose success is supported by maritime security,” said Mahfud. In accordance with the direction of Indonesian President Joko Widodo, Mahfud invited all Indonesian stakeholders to: (1) come to the same understanding of maritime security affairs; (2) prioritize the interests of the state; (3) prioritize national interests; (4) prioritize common interests in handling security, safeguarding maritime sovereignty and territorial areas in governance; and (5) coordinate activities appropriately between stakeholders.

The Coordinating Minister for Political, Legal and Security Affairs specifically reminded all Indonesian marine stakeholders to “synergize and coordinate well as stipulated in Government Regulation Number 13 of 2022 concerning Implementation of Security, Safety and Law Enforcement in Indonesian Waters Territories and Indonesian Jurisdictional Territories.”

Meanwhile, in the introductory remarks of the CEO of IOJI, Mas Achmad Santosa quoted the statement of the Secretary General of the United Nations: there will be no development without peace or security, and there will be no peace or security without development and emphasized that a responsive marine security system and resilience is a prerequisite for development.

Mas Achmad Santosa stated that the development directions that have been set in the 2025-2045 RPJPN need to be guarded and perfected, including one aspect of maritime security. Thus, the various dynamics that lie ahead can be overcome. “IOJI is committed to continuing to voice and support the government to strengthen the maritime security system,” continued Mas Achmad Santosa.

First Discussion Panel

The seminar “Development of Maritime Security in the 2025-2045 RPJPN” was divided into two panels. The first panel presented three speakers: Member of Commission 1 and the Legislative Body of the Indonesian Parliament, Christina Aryani; Head of the Indonesian Maritime Security Agency, Vice Admiral TNI Aan Kurnia; and Assistant for Operations to the Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Navy, Rear Admiral TNI Denih Hendrata representing the Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Navy.

Christina Aryani explained her views on the importance of a national maritime security strategy. According to Christina, currently there are dozens of agencies that have the duties and functions of marine governance. With so many agencies and limited resources, a lean organization will enable the effective utilization of patrol and surveillance resources. “However, it seems impossible to give responsibility to only one institution considering the many islands in Indonesia. Whatever the form, the DPR RI supports the improvement of marine security governance, the formation of legislation after evaluating the PP and Presidential Decrees, monitoring the performance of partners related to maritime security, including budget alignments,” continued Christina. Christina added that the maritime bill initiative had to come from the government.

Vice Admiral TNI Aan Kurnia in his presentation with the theme “Strategy and Steps to Build a Trusted and Professional Marine Security Management” revealed several factual conditions in Indonesian waters and jurisdiction, including: (i) Indonesia’s biggest threats are still illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing followed by criminal acts at sea, pollution and cyber-based maritime crimes, (ii) the government’s presence at sea and maritime surveillance is not 24/7, (iii) there are overlapping regulations related to supervision with limited functions and authorities.

He revealed several concepts that can support the transformation of law enforcement at sea, both in the short and long term. “In the short term, increasing the synergy of maritime security management and the revision of Law 32/2014 concerning Maritime Affairs. Meanwhile, for the long term, this can be done through structuring regulations on related laws in the field of maritime security through the Maritime Security Omnibus Law,” he said.

The presentation ended by TNI Rear Admiral Denih Hendrata. In his presentation entitled “Understanding the Universal People’s Defense and Security System for the Defense and Security of Archipelagic Countries,” Denih stated that the Indonesian Navy has several maritime defense strategies. “The Archipelago Sea Defense Strategy (SPLN) is not a national defense strategy that is Navy centric, but a defense strategy that prioritizes Indonesia’s critical capabilities as an archipelagic country with a layered defense concept that is balanced with the development of a balanced, inter-operable and synergistic Tri Matra Integrated force,” said Denny.

Second Panel Discussion

The discussion continued on the second panel with the resource person Bobby Adhityo Rizaldi who is a Member of Commission I and Co-chair of the DPR-RI Maritime Caucus. Bobby delivered a presentation entitled “Development of Maritime Security Based on the Gray Zone Operation in Supporting Indonesia as the World Maritime Axis.”

Bobby said crimes at sea including slavery on ships were still rife against Indonesian citizens. Responding to these problems “requires strengthening of regulations, infrastructure and institutions that govern the duties, functions and authorities of marine stakeholders,” he said. Apart from that, Indonesia is also still facing IUU fishing in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).

He specifically referred to China’s Gray Zone Operation in the South China Sea, where various violations occurred, which also harmed Indonesia. To anticipate this, Bobby believes that the Indonesian government needs civilian organizations that are internationally accepted and have capacities such as paramilitaries, so that Indonesia is ready to face the Gray Zone Operations like those carried out by China in the South China Sea.

The next guest speaker, Bogat Widyatmoko, Deputy for Political, Legal and Security Affairs at BAPPENAS delivered a presentation entitled “Development of Maritime Security in the 2025-2045 RPJPN to Oversee the Achievement of Long-Term Development Targets.”

According to Bogat, what is needed is to accelerate the transformation of policies, strategies and programs to achieve the vision of Golden Indonesia 2045. In the national maritime security sector, the 2025-2045 RPJPN encourages the transformation of security, safety and law enforcement institutions in territorial waters and jurisdictional areas. Indonesia’s sea is integrated in a single legal umbrella. This transformation needs to be carried out in order to realize effective and efficient technology-based security, safety and law enforcement (KKPH) in Indonesian waters and marine jurisdiction areas.

The last resource person is Collin S.L. Koh from Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. In his presentation on “Regional Maritime Security Challenges: Now and the Next 20 Years,” Collin conveyed that nontraditional challenges such as IUU fishing, illegal trade and sea pollution will continue for the next 20 years. Collin added that the geopolitical situation in conflict-prone areas such as the South China Sea must be taken seriously because it will further escalate nontraditional threats to become traditional threats.

He warned, “instead of decreasing, coordination and collaboration between stakeholders should have increased.”

After the seminar, the discussion continued with a workshop with representatives of key Indonesian maritime security stakeholders from various ministries, institutions, government organizations, as well as maritime security experts from the University of Indonesia, Brawijaya University, and Rajaratnam School of International Studies, in order to formulate a draft maritime security strategy that integrated with the RPJPN.

The challenges of maritime security in the future must be faced together, and can no longer be sectoral. The collaboration of various parties is the key to achieving the longterm development targets of 2025–2045.


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